Romance of India with Unemployment
The employability of India has always been a riddle, which even at the threshold of 73rd year of independence remains perplexed.
The custom of camouflaging governmental data has a long root in Indian history. Since 1947, two parallel lines – population and unemployment never seem to intersect. And the competition continues, costing millions of lives.
Post-independence, colonial free India had undergone several probations, starting from the wounds of partition, border tensions with neighbouring countries; both in the east and the west, bad agriculture, to multiple recessions. For any unstructured, unorganized and misbalanced country, the survival after these calamities was still a miracle. As luck would have it, India despite struggling through the clutches of politics, managed to occupy its seat in the top developing countries of the world. Nevertheless, there is yet no denial from the fact that the Golden Bird consists of two different worlds – one for the privileged and one for the destitute.
An overview of the wide-ranging factors of unemployment
- Increase in Population
The ever increasing population of India still remains one of the major causes of unemployment. The availability of jobs always exceeds the seekers expediently.
- Slow economic growth
If authentic data are collected and analyzed in the light of rationalism; the developmental pace was never extra-ordinary. However, transformation undoubtedly took place. But there still lacks any phenomenal revolution.
- Deplorable agricultural sector
More than half the population of India depends either directly or indirectly on the agriculture sector. To our dismay, technological advancement has rarely seen the face of Indian fields. This also causes seasonal employment, due to which the rest part of the year becomes dreary.
- Political gambling
In a diverse country like India, politics played its sadistic role on the cost of millions of morsels. Had it not been the dirty politics in India, the country would have touched the sky.
- Capital-intensive industries
The manner in which India is heading towards the instalment of capital-intensive techniques in the industrial sector, there will be more job losses in the upcoming decades. More numbers of people are getting unemployed as less number is required to run any factory due to the substitution with the machines.
- Expansion in Universities
The country has witnessed a significant growth rate in the expansion of universities. This alone can tremble the whole employment sector, because the numbers of graduates are increasing rapidly. Whereas, the opportunities of jobs have not seen any noteworthy upsurge since decades.
Total Central Universities – 49
Total State Universities – 411
Total Deemed Universities – 123
Total Private Universities – 282
- Regional Disparity
Indian has been suffering due to the method of selective development. As we can very clearly see how some states are reaching the heights while others still dwelling on the same tone they were a couple of centuries back. For example – Kerala, Haryana, etc. come in the domain of developed states while Orissa and Bihar are lagging far behind.
After having discussed the major factors (not the only factor) of unemployment in India, let’s head towards some statistics, which will provide evidences of how the rate grew and was left unfixed.
The period 1980-2015
NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) provides a data that says – the unemployment rate for the period of 1980-2015 never saw any momentous variation, and it was about 2.8%. In absolute terms, according to various Indian governments between 1983 and 2005, the number of unemployed persons in India steadily increased from around 7.8 million in 1983 to 12.3 million in 2004-05.
The question which raises the concern is – how could India not alleviate its citizens from the web of unemployment even though the economy of the country had globalized in 1991 (New Economic Police – Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization)? Integration with the world market had opened multiple doors for seeking jobs. Nonetheless, the rate of unemployment despite decreasing, amplified. The economy no doubt increased. The GDP of India outshone, especially after the New Economic Policy. But this economic growth was jobless.
The jaw-dropping reports of 2018-19
The over-enthusiastic and hyper-nationalistic regime of BJP never cared to pay heed towards the poor structure of employment. In fact, the novel stats broke all the records of past four to five decades. According to Pew Research Centre “About 18.6 million Indians were jobless and 393.7 million worked in poor-quality jobs vulnerable to displacement”.
A report on unemployment prepared by the NSSO office’s periodic labour force survey has not been released by the government. Business Today states, “this report is the first comprehensive survey on employment conducted by a government agency after PM Modi announced demonetization in 2016”. According to this report, the 2017-18 usual status unemployment rate in India at 6.1%, a four-decade high.
Unemployment rate after COVID-19
The Centre for Monitoring India Economy (CMIE) says, “The novel coronavirus crisis has led to a spike in the country’s unemployment rate to 27.11% for the week ended May3, up from the 7% level before the start of the pandemic in mid-march”.
Why the current regime is to be blamed?
Although, there were not many corrective measures before 2014 in India to eradicate the issue of unemployment, the controversy gains the currency when one gets to know that fact that already exploited India was murdered post-2014. Demonetization brought millions on roads. Not because they were surviving on black money, but because they were compelled to suffer due to non-availability of cash in hand. Ironically, the purpose for which the debatable demonetization was planned didn’t see the day of light. A negligible percentage of black money was recovered. Aftermath, the extremely suppressed and oppressed citizens were on the verge to stand and recover, the government imposed new taxation laws under GST. It caused many businesses to stop for several months due to the technicalities in the new law for which the people were not prepared.
What will you expect from a sane person during the time of crisis? Will he look forward to saving or become a spendthrift? Obviously he will save as much as possible. But the government chose otherwise. The status were built worth hundreds of crore. Horse trading was done to trample the government of the opposition. The Rafale jets were purchased from France at three times the normal price. This however, gained the rumour but majoritarian government still managed to make their way. The inflation rates were bulging out of normalcy…….In the midst of all these atrocities, brutalities and cruelties – the government kept on sponsoring riots in metropolis to destroy the businesses of the small-scale enterprise. As a result of which, few elite capitalists skyrocketed from their normal status and marked their presence in top richest lists. The step of selling the shares to the private owners of many companies in different sectors, such as airlines and railways infuriated the common people. The act of privatizing failed to get digested when people were begging for food to survive.
The poor plight and uncertain future of youth
It will be so biased to claim that the entire youth community is boiling in the rage of unemployment. Some have no doubt unfortunately fallen in the trap of fascism. But the majority which is least broadcasted is still questioning about basic income, stable jobs, shelter, positive future etc. There is an upsurge in the level of crime, as joblessness leads to many unlawful and illicit activities.
For India, to regain its lost glory, it is extremely important to consider things in the light of rationality, relevancy and legitimacy. Everyone will have to come out of the emotional mental status and work with reasons. The manner in which fascism took lives in the past few years, it poses a danger sign for the future as well.
Especially the responsibility is upon the youth, who are the future architect of this country. If they happen to fall the in the trap, multiple generations will not be able to stand up again, until there is a renaissance.
Long Live India!!!